Carboxylic Acid Reactive Liposomes

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Carboxylic acid reactive liposomes have functionalized groups on the surface that react with carboxylic acid groups (-COOH) in a specific affixation reaction, and are widely used in drug delivery and nanomedicine, such as for specific targeting, drug loading, or immunotherapy development purposes. BOC Sciences is committed to being your supplier of carboxylic acid reactive liposomes based on optimized GMP grade manufacturing strategies to support the delivery of high quality and high-volume carboxylic acid reactive liposome products.

What are Carboxylic Acid Reactive Liposomes?

Carboxylic acid reactive liposomes are a special type of liposomal nanocarriers designed to selectively interact with molecules or surfaces containing carboxylic acid groups. These liposomes are widely used in biomedical and pharmaceutical research for a variety of applications, mainly focusing on drug delivery and targeted therapies.

A structural example of carboxylic acid reactive liposomes and its mechanism of action in CAR-deficient cancer cells.Figure 1. A structural example of carboxylic acid reactive liposomes and its mechanism of action in CAR-deficient cancer cells. (J, R, Shah.; et al, 2022)

  • Functionalized Carboxylic Acid Reactive Liposomes

Amine-responsive liposomes are created by doping amine-responsive molecules or linkers into the lipid bilayer of a liposome.BOC Sciences offers common liposomes with amine-responsive moieties including N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester groups, isothiocyanate groups, maleimide groups, isocyanate groups, and aldehyde groups.

Common Carboxylic Acid Reaction Groups.Figure 2. Common arboxylic acid groups.

N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS ester) Group: NHS esters can be covalently bound to amine groups and under alkaline conditions proceed to form stable amide bonds. NHS ester groups are widely used in the preparation of liposomes for immunocovalent binding or covalent binding of biomolecules.

Isothiocyanate Group: Isothiocyanate group can react with amine groups under basic or neutral conditions to form thioether bonds, which are commonly used for covalent binding of proteins or peptides.

Maleimide Group: Maleimide groups can react with amine groups under neutral or weakly basic conditions to form a maleimide bond, which is commonly used for covalent binding of proteins.

Isocyanate Group: Isocyanate group reacts with the amine group to form a urea bond, which is commonly used for covalent binding of biomolecules or chemotherapeutic drugs.

Aldehyde Group: Aldehyde groups can react with amine groups to form Schiff base or hydrazine bonds, usually under neutral or weakly basic conditions.

Advantages of Carboxylic Acid Reactive Liposomes

(1) Carboxylic acid-reactive liposomes are based on microscopic bilayer lipid vesicles consisting of one or more lipids surrounding an aqueous nucleus that can encapsulate both hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances, making them excellent candidates for drug delivery.

(2) Facilitating targeted drug delivery studies: By functionalizing the surface of liposomes with ligands capable of recognizing and binding to carboxylic acid-containing receptors or biomarkers on specific cells or tissues, these liposomes can deliver therapeutic agents directly to the desired site while minimizing off-target effects.

(3) pH-responsive controlled release: pH-responsive carboxylic acid-responsive liposomes that can sensitively control the release of their cargo in response to changes in pH levels.

(4) Customizable and Diverse Surface Modification Strategies: Carboxylic acid responsive liposomes, in addition to being modified with carboxylic acid responsive moieties, allow for the modification of other functionalized liposomes, including covalent splicing, electrostatic interactions, or physical adsorption. These surface-modified molecules improve drug-carrying stability, cycle time, and targeting ability.

(5) Wide range of biomedical applications: Carboxylic acid-responsive liposomes perform well in disease management and diagnostics by precisely delivering therapeutic agents, imaging agents, or diagnostic markers to specific tissues or cells.

(6) Biocompatibility and safety: Carboxylic acid reactive liposomes have good biocompatibility and safety as drug carriers.

For more custom services about our carboxylic acid reactive liposomes, please feel free to contact us.


  1. J, R, Shah.; et al. Development of Adenovirus Containing Liposomes Produced by Extrusion vs. Homogenization: A Comparison for Scale-Up Purposes. Bioengineering. 2022, 9(11): 620.

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